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Chef's Thanksgiving Tips

Chef's Thanksgiving Tips

Chefs including Johnny Iuzzini and Michael Anthony give their advice for turkey day



Every family has Thanksgiving traditions that they swear by, and chefs are no different. In the video above, we catch up with a few chefs and writers to get their take on what makes their turkey day special.

Bill Telepan, of Telepan in New York City, says,"The big turkey secret I have is I’m not a briner, I’m a salter." He recommends salting the turkey the night before, putting it high heat for 20 minutes, then lowering the heat for the remainder.

Gramercy Tavern's Michael Anthony has two suggestions. "I like to poach the turkey first the night before, let it air dry, and then finish it 45 minutes to an hour in the oven, it comes out really crispy on the outside succulent on the inside." His second method requires a bit more equipment, but he is also a fan of smoking the turkey. He believes that the smoked turkey is always a crowd favorite.

Amanda Cohen of Dirt Candy and Cedric Vongerichten each have simpler advice. Cohen likes "to have a bottle of bourbon or whiskey with me" and Vongerichten (also a briner) thinks the key element is "giving it a lot of love."

But The New York Times' Melissa Clark thinks she has the winning solution: "Dry brine, don’t wet brine. Take salt and herbs and whatever flavorings you like — I like to put coriander and lemon zest." She takes her dry brine, pats it on the bird, and leaves it for two days.

For more chef tips, watch the video above!

For more turkey talk, visit The Daily Meal's Guide to Thanksgiving!

Top Tips And Recipes From Denver Chefs For Thanksgiving Meals & Leftovers

The experts at Seasoned Chef Cooking School in Denver were eager to offer some tips for making the big turkey day a success, as well as Thanksgiving-day recipes that inspired ideas for what to do with the leftovers. Seasoned Chef has a series of classes dedicated just to Thanksgiving. For more information, follow the link below. Please see the notation in preparation time for the recipes that can be made ahead.

Seasoned Chef Cooking School Thanksgiving Tips:

The Seasoned Chef Cooking School
999 Jasmine St.
Denver, CO 80220
(303) 377-3222

Chef Dan Witherspoon
Owner, Seasoned Chef Cooking School

&ldquoThe most important tip is to write down a cooking plan with time frames for all of the dishes you are preparing so you will have a sense of when to cook items, what you can do in advance and when to serve dinner.&rdquo

&ldquoIt&rsquos okay to plan the same menu every year because you are comfortable with it, sort of like auto pilot in the kitchen, and your guests and family look forward to these once-a-year dishes.&rdquo

Chef Amy Hoyt
Instructor at Seasoned Chef, Chef de Cuisine of The Gourmet Spoon

&ldquoMake the meal last instead of it being just 20 minutes of gluttony. After all, it took hours of cooking. Give favorite dishes their due by plating them individually in small portions and assign helpers as sous chefs for each course. It may sound complicated, but it&rsquos easier than putting 10 dishes on the table at once. Serve soup first, then light salads, followed by the turkey with vegetables, starch and a condiment like cranberry sauce. If another meat is on the menu like ham or game, serve it next with an appropriate side. For dessert, serve fruit and cheese followed by the sweet dessert. After dinner, play board games that suit all ages to keep the good vibes going.&rdquo

  • Turkey, 10-25 lbs
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
  • 3-6 tablespoons melted butter or olive oil
  • 2 tablespoons poultry seasoning, optional
  • 1 recipe turkey dressing, freshly made and still hot
  1. Preheat the oven to 325 degrees Fahrenheit. Set the oven rack to the lowest level in the oven.
  2. Open the front and rear cavities of the turkey and remove the neck and giblet package. Rinse the turkey inside and out with cold water and thoroughly dry with a paper towel. Season the turkey cavities with salt and pepper. Fill the cavities loosely with the hot dressing. Seal the cavities with either a large needle and thread or small skewers. Then season the entire outside of the turkey with salt, pepper and optional poultry seasoning. Brush generously with the melted butter or olive oil.
  3. Using a large roasting pan with a V-rack insert, place the turkey breast-side down and put it in the oven.
  4. Use the following timing chart to gauge the estimated cooking time of your turkey: 10-12 minutes per pound for unstuffed turkey and 12-15 minutes per pound for stuffed turkey.
  5. Turn the turkey breast-side up halfway through cooking. Remove the roasting pan from the oven and insert two large serving forks at the front and the rear of the bird. Lift the turkey off the rack and turn it until the breast is pointing up. Place back on the rack and back in the oven. This is a good time to add roughly chopped carrots and celery to the bottom of the pan that can be used to make gravy.
  6. It is best to baste the turkey every 30 minutes during the cooking process. Use either a pastry brush or a basting bulb. Soak up the accumulated juices in the roasting pan and spread generously over the bird.
  7. To check for doneness, white meat is done between 160-165 degrees Fahrenheit and dark meat is done between 170-175 degrees Fahrenheit. To check for doneness, run a large metal skewer or accurate meat thermometer vertically in the seam between the breast and the thigh. The temperature should read above 170 degrees Fahrenheit at the thickest spot and any juices that run should be clear. In addition, it is recommended to run the same test in the center of the dressing. The temperature should read in excess of 160 degrees Fahrenheit. Remove from the oven when done.
  8. The turkey should rest between 10 and 30 minutes before carving. All dressing should be removed from the bird and kept warm if not served immediately.
  • 7 cups turkey or chicken stock
  • One-fourth cup cornstarch
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
  • Reserved turkey giblets
  1. Turn two stove-top burners on medium-high heat and place the turkey roasting pan with all the vegetables and pan juices over the two burners. Pour all but one-fourth cup of the turkey stock into the roasting pan. Bring this to a strong simmer and scrape the browned bits away from the bottom and sides of the pan. This should take about five minutes, stirring frequently.
  2. Set a sieve over a large pot or bowl and pour the contents of the roasting through the sieve. Press hard on the vegetables with the back of a large spoon to get out all of the liquid and flavors. Once they are cool, discard the solids in the trash. Spoon off as much of the fat off the top of the liquid as possible or pour the liquid into a fat separator. Transfer the de-fatted liquid into a medium saucepan and place over medium-high heat. Simmer for five minutes.
  3. Now, finely dice the heart and gizzard that were set aside from making the turkey stock. If desired, dice the reserved uncooked liver. Stir the giblets into the gravy and reduce the heat to low. In a small bowl, stir the remaining one-fourth cup of stock into the cornstarch it should make a thick slurry. Slowly add the cornstarch slurry into the gravy, whisking constantly. Cook slowly until the gravy thickens (about three to four minutes). Season with salt and pepper.

Shredded Lemon and Hazelnut-Kissed Brussels Sprouts
Recipe Courtesy of Chef Cheryl Rojic

Note: This dish should be made just before serving, though the Brussels sprouts can be sliced a day ahead and stored wrapped in damp paper towels in a Ziplock bag in the refrigerator.

  • 1 lemon
  • 1 lb Brussels sprouts, stems trimmed
  • 1 tablespoon unrefined coconut oil or butter
  • 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
  • 1 clove garlic, minced
  • Sea salt and freshly ground pepper
  • One-fourth cup vegetable broth
  • Half-cup toasted, skinned and chopped hazelnuts
  1. Zest the lemon and set the zest aside. Then cut the lemon in half.
  2. Finely slice the Brussels sprouts and place them in a large bowl. Toss shredded sprouts with lemon zest and squeeze lemon over the bowl (capture the seeds and remove them).
  3. Heat coconut oil and olive oil in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add sprouts and stir to coat. Sauté for two minutes until tender. Add garlic and cook for one minute more, still stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper. Stir in the broth and cook until heated through. Add hazelnuts, stir and serve.

Leftover Ideas:
Recipes courtesy of Kimberly Lord Stewart

Turkey Wraps: Wrap turkey, shredded lettuce, avocado and cranberry sauce mixed with mayonnaise in a large tortilla.

A Texan Thanksgiving

It's that time again—you know what we're talking about. With Turkey Day nearly upon us, we reached out to some of our favorite chefs to get their tips on creating a cooking plan, handling holiday dilemmas, and, of course, dealing with poorly behaved family members. Last week we spoke to Renee Erickson, and today we're chatting with Jack Gilmore, chef/owner of Jack Allen's Kitchen in Austin and author of Jack Allen's Kitchen: Celebrating the Tastes of Texas (Jack Allen's Kitchen Restaurants, $40).

What are your tips on planning a Thanksgiving cooking timeline? I start preparing for Thanksgiving in early November, which is when I order turkeys and hams from my farmers. Then I spend some time working on the sides, leaving the cooking of the main courses until last. I like to get as many people involved in the cooking as I can to help with slicing, dicing, chopping and stirring.

What dishes are okay to cook ahead of time, and what's okay to cook at the last minute? Ahead of time is anything served cold, like chutney, salad or cranberry sauce. You can also peel and chop all your vegetables and brine your turkey in advance. Gravy is good to cook last-minute since you have to wait for all of the drippings anyway. The last thing out of my oven? Killer bread rolls.

What are your go-to dishes? Tamale-jalapeño cornbread dressing, oyster dressing and giblet gravy.

What are your tips for working in an unfamiliar kitchen? Stay organized. Put the booze down. And get familiar with your space before crunch time.

How do you decorate for Thanksgiving? Very rustic. The only things that matter are food, friends and family.

What's on your cooking playlist? Texas country. And my wife, LuAnn, throws in some Christmas music.

What's on the booze list? Good Pinot Noir and Super Texan from local winery Flat Creek Estate. And my son will bring some craft beer.

How do you deal with inevitable family drama? Thanksgiving is a day of peace and family. Family drama should not be part of it. So just turn the other cheek and act like you're having a good time! As for the day after Thanksgiving. it's on.

How do you deal with overly drunk guests? It always happens, but all you have to do is make sure they get fed well.

What do you do with leftovers? Leftovers are the best part of Thanksgiving. For breakfast on Friday morning, take leftover ham and blacken it. Then form mashed potatoes into little patties you can brown on the stovetop. Use sweet potatoes in a hash topped with eggs. For dinner, we'll make turkey and dressing meatballs with maple giblet gravy: Take the leftover turkey and chop it up, mix it with diced celery and onion, Dijon mustard, leftover tamale-jalapeño cornbread dressing, Worcestershire sauce and eggs, and make it into meatballs. It's the best.


Turkey is always hyped as the main event for Thanksgiving dinner, but it oftentimes comes out on the dry side, leading guests to fill up on the sides. If you brine it with a flavored mixture (such as this citrus and herb blend from Busy Creating Memories), you'll end up with a juicy turkey that will have your guests lining up for seconds. No, you don't have to keep basting your turkey anymore—this is the easiest way to cut some corners and still end up with a juicier turkey.

Chefs' Thanksgiving Dinner Tips

Get all the tips for an easy and stress-free Thanksgiving dinner from some of Food Network's favorite chefs.

Related To:

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Photo By: Kevin Lynch ©2012, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Bobby Flay

Alex Guarnaschelli

"As simple as this tip sounds, it's one of my favorites: When you wake up on Thanksgiving morning (or even the night before), fully set your table down to the last detail. That way, even if dinner is not completely ready on time, you don't have to worry about the table, and you 'look' ready!"

Instead of using flour or cornstarch, which may clump in hot liquid, Alex thickens turkey gravy with vegetables. She starts with really soft roasted veggies &ndash a mix of onions, carrots and celery is ideal &ndash then purees them with warm stock in the blender. Add this to the gravy base to create creamy, smooth results.

The secret to getting rid of lumps in mashed potatoes and gravy lies in two key tools: a potato ricer and a sieve, Alex says. Pass cooked potatoes &ndash even already mashed potatoes that have been mixed with butter and milk &ndash through a ricer to guarantee a light, fluffy mash. And for the gravy, just before serving, strain it through a sieve to catch any bits of fat from the drippings.

Faced with a dry turkey? Alex recommends cutting it in big &ldquosteaklike&rdquo slices with the skin still on and serving the pieces next to each other to retain as much moisture and flavor as possible. Plus, a hefty pour of gravy on top when serving never hurts either, she explains.

Rachael Ray

Aarón Sánchez

Giada De Laurentiis

"To put an Italian spin on Thanksgiving, I make a ciabatta stuffing with chestnuts and sausage. And since my mom's a vegetarian, I always make butternut squash lasagna for guests who don't eat meat."

If you&rsquove ever found guests sticking around your house well after the party has ended, Giada has a tip for nudging guests to leave: turn off the lights! That&rsquoll give them the hint, she told us.

Geoffrey Zakarian

Ree Drummond

Jose Garces

Sunny Anderson

Spike Mendelsohn

Jeff Mauro

Marc Murphy

Eric Greenspan

Martha Stewart

Believe it or not, Martha says she actually likes canned cranberry sauce! However, she implores you to make your own, because it&rsquos so simple and a holiday like Thanksgiving demands extra-special touches.

Carla Hall

As you&rsquore carving the Thanksgiving turkey, Carla recommends flipping over the bird to find two really delicious nuggets of meat on the back. They&rsquore called the oysters, and they&rsquore tucked on either side of the spine. Moist, tender and full of flavor, the oysters are some of Carla&rsquos favorite cuts of turkey.

10 Easy Thanksgiving Recipes Celebrity Chefs Serve Their Families

Celeb chefs gave us their sacred Thanksgiving recipes, so your fam can be thankful, too.

Celeb chefs gave us their sacred Thanksgiving recipes, so your fam can be thankful, too.

"These bites have been part of our holiday gatherings since I was a young kid. They're a great snack after the Thanksgiving Day football game." &mdashBryan, Top Chef season 6 finalist

"We looked forward to holidays because of this treat. A few simple ingredients and Mom is a hero!" &mdashMichael, Top Chef season 6 winner

Prep time: 10 minutes
Cook time: 20 minutes
Makes 34 puffs

3 cups pancake mix (such as Bisquick)
1 lb bulk (not in casing) breakfast sausage, crumbled
1 cup shredded sharp cheddar cheese
3 Tbsp unsalted butter, melted
2 tsp chopped fresh sage

1. Heat oven to 400°F. Line a large baking sheet with parchment paper.

2. Combine all ingredients in the bowl of a stand mixer with a paddle attachment or beaters (or use a handheld mixer). Mix on medium-low speed until sausage and cheese are blended into the baking mix and form a moist paste.

3. Shape heaping tablespoonfuls into 1½-inch balls you'll end up with 34. (Puffs can be made to this point a day ahead just cover and refrigerate.) Place balls evenly spaced on prepared baking sheet and bake 20 minutes or until puffed and golden brown. Let cool on baking sheet on a wire rack for 5 minutes. Serve warm.

"This sweet yet earthy soup can be prepared several days in advance and quickly reheated just before serving&mdashwhich gives you the freedom to focus on the larger items on the big day." &mdashEmeril, star of Emeril's Table on Hallmark Channel

Prep time: 25 minutes
Cook time: 33 minutes
Makes 8 servings

2 Tbsp unsalted butter
1½ cups peeled, diced parsnips
1¼ cups diced onion
¼ cup diced celery
1 tsp chopped garlic
6 fresh thyme sprigs, tied together in a bundle
2 lbs turnips, peeled, diced
3 cups low-sodium chicken stock
1 cup low-sodium vegetable stock
1¼ tsp kosher salt
¾ tsp freshly ground black pepper
½ cup heavy cream

Parsnip chips:
3 parsnips (about ½ lb)
1½ Tbsp olive oil
½ tsp coarse sea salt
Chopped fresh chives, for garnish

1. Heat oven to 300°F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.

2. Soup: Melt butter in a saucepan over medium-high heat add parsnips, onion, and celery. Cook 5 minutes, until lightly caramelized around edges. Add garlic and thyme and cook, stirring, 2 minutes.

3. Add turnips, stocks, salt, and pepper. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low, cover, and simmer 25 minutes, until turnips are tender.

4. Parsnip chips: While soup is simmering, use a vegetable peeler to peel parsnips lengthwise into long, paper-thin ribbons. Place ribbons into a bowl and toss with olive oil and sea salt. Lay ribbons on prepared baking sheet in an even layer. Bake 20 minutes or until parsnips are crispy and golden brown. Cool on baking sheet before removing.

5. Remove thyme bundle from soup and stir in cream. Using an immersion blender, puree soup until smooth (or puree in batches in a blender or food processor). Ladle into serving bowls. Garnish each bowl with chives and parsnip chips.

"I love making this traditional recipe for the holiday. It takes me right back to every Thanksgiving table I ever sat at, from my Grandma Paul's to the little turkeys I roasted when we were a small family of three, just me and my boys." &mdashPaula, author of Paula Deen Cuts the Fat

Cook time: 4 hours
Makes 8 servings (with lots of leftovers)
Makes 3½ cups gravy

Turkey broth:
Neck and giblets from
turkey (liver discarded)
4 cups low-sodium chicken broth
1 large yellow onion, chopped

1 fresh or frozen turkey (about 16 lb), thawed if frozen
3 tsp kosher salt
2 tsp ground pepper
1 onion, quartered
1 head of garlic, halved crosswise
10 sprigs fresh sage
½ cup (1 stick) unsalted butter, melted

1. Turkey broth: In a saucepan, combine turkey neck, giblets, broth, and onion. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, partially cover, and simmer 1 hour. Strain broth into a bowl. Discard neck, giblets, and onion. Cover broth and reserve for pan gravy.

2. Turkey: Heat oven to 325°F. Rinse turkey pat dry. Season cavity with 1 tsp each of the salt and pepper and the exterior with 2 tsp salt and 1 tsp pepper. Stuff onion, garlic, and sage sprigs into cavity. Place turkey, breast side up, in a large, heavy nonstick roasting pan. Tie legs together and twist wing tips under the back. Insert a meat thermometer into the center of one thigh, next to the body, avoiding any bone. Brush turkey with ¼ cup of the butter. Add 1 cup water to roasting pan.

3. Loosely tent turkey with heavy-duty foil. Roast 3½ to 4 hours, basting turkey every 45 minutes with pan juices and remaining ¼ cup melted butter. Remove foil after 3 hours. Turkey is fully cooked when thermometer hits 170°F.

4. Transfer turkey to a carving board. Tent it loosely with foil and let rest 45 minutes. Pour fat and drippings from roasting pan into a measuring cup. Spoon off and reserve ¼ cup turkey fat for pan gravy. Spoon off and discard remaining fat from drippings. Reserve drippings for pan gravy.

Pan gravy: Place roasting pan on two stove burners over medium-high heat. Add reserved turkey fat and whisk in ¼ cup flour. Cook, whisking until smooth, 1 minute. Slowly whisk in reserved turkey broth simmer 5 minutes, until thickened. Whisk in reserved pan drippings and any accumulated juices from turkey. Strain into a gravy server.

"We've taken two classic ingredients&mdashcranberry and orange&mdashand added a hint of chipotle. Guests love it!" &mdashGina , co-host of Down Home with the Neely's on Food Network

"Everything can be improved with just a touch of spice." &mdashPat, co-host of Down Home with the Neely's on Food Network

Prep time: 5 minutes
Cook time: 20 minutes
Makes 3½ cups

2 Tbsp unsalted butter
1 small shallot, finely chopped
¼ tsp kosher salt
4 cups (1 lb) fresh cranberries
1 cup golden raisins
½ cup each orange juice and water
1 cup granulated sugar
1 small chipotle chile in adobo, seeded, minced

1. Melt butter in a medium saucepan over medium heat until it foams. Add shallot and salt and sauté until soft, about 2 minutes.

2. Stir in remaining ingredients and bring mixture to a boil. Reduce heat to low and simmer, stirring occasionally, until cranberries pop and mixture thickens slightly, 12 to 15 minutes. Let cool to room temperature. Refrigerate for at least 1 hour (or up to 3 days) before serving.

"I like to get something lighter into Thanksgiving, and the bright acids of this salad wake up the palate. I'm used to cooking for my mom, dad, and sister, who was a vegetarian [she passed away in February], so I want to make something everyone can enjoy." &mdashGuy, host of Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives on Food Network

Prep time: 15 minutes
Cook time: 15 minutes
Makes 8 servings

½ cup basmati rice
1 cup water
1 tsp minced garlic
¼ cup apple cider vinegar
3 Tbsp whole-grain Dijon mustard
2 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
1 Tbsp each honey, minced shallot, and chopped cilantro
1 (15½-oz) can black-eyed peas, rinsed, drained
½ cup diced red bell pepper
⅓ cup pimiento-stuffed Spanish olives, sliced
¼ cup diced red onion
1 tsp ground black pepper

1. In a small saucepan, combine rice, water, and garlic. Bring to a boil, cover pan, and simmer on low for 15 minutes or until water is absorbed and rice is just tender. Let cool. Fluff with a fork.

2. In a large bowl, whisk vinegar, mustard, oil, honey, shallot, and cilantro until combined. Add rice and remaining ingredients, and toss until evenly dressed. Salad can be refrigerated up to 2 hours before serving.

"My family loves side dishes, so this dressing usually ends up on the center of our plates, with the turkey on the side!" &mdashCarla, Top Chef season 5 finalist and co-host of The Chew on ABC

Prep time: 30 minutes (not including making cornbread)
Cook time: 45 minutes
Makes 8 servings

¾ cup dried cranberries
¼ cup (½ stick) unsalted butter
2 cups diced onion
1 cup diced celery
2 tsp chopped fresh thyme leaves
1 tsp poultry seasoning
1 (20-oz) pkg sweet Italian turkey sausage, casings removed, crumbled
8 cups day-old cornbread, chopped into ¾-inch cubes (recipe follows)
1 tsp kosher salt
½ tsp black pepper
2 large eggs, slightly beaten
1½ cups chicken stock
1 cup heavy cream

1. Heat oven to 350°F. Grease a 13×9-inch baking dish. Soak cranberries in 1 cup hot water to rehydrate.

2. Melt butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onion, celery, and thyme. Sauté until softened and lightly caramelized, about 10 minutes season with poultry seasoning. Transfer mixture to a large bowl.

3. Cook sausage in the same skillet, breaking up clumps with a wooden spoon, about 8 minutes, until lightly browned. Add sausage to vegetables in bowl. Drain cranberries and add to bowl along with cornbread, salt, and pepper. Toss to combine.

4. In a separate bowl, whisk together eggs, stock, and cream. Pour into cornbread mixture and stir until evenly moistened. Spoon into prepared baking dish and cover with foil. Bake 30 minutes remove foil and continue to bake 15 minutes or until stuffing is hot, browned, and slightly crisp on top.

Carla's Cornbread
Makes 8 cups

Place a 9-inch cast-iron skillet in oven heat oven to 425°F. In a medium bowl, combine 2 cups yellow cornmeal, 2 Tbsp sugar, 4 tsp baking powder, and ½ tsp salt. In a 4-cup glass measure (or another bowl), whisk 3 large eggs, 1 cup sour cream, 1 (8¼-oz) can cream-style corn, and ½ cup canola oil until blended pour over cornmeal mixture and mix until smooth. Carefully remove hot skillet from oven. Add 1 Tbsp canola oil to skillet, swirling pan to coat. Pour batter into skillet. Bake 20 to 25 minutes, until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean and cornbread is golden. Cool 10 minutes in pan invert onto a wire rack and cool completely. Cut cornbread into ½-inch cubes. Spread cubes on a baking sheet. (Cornbread can be made a day ahead store uncovered at room temperature.)

"My whole family oohs and aahs over this casserole because it looks so gorgeous with the poofed meringue peaks. I am always tickled that everyone requests it each year. And it has a third of the calories of your run-of the-mill sweet potato casserole." &mdashEllie, host of Healthy Appetite with Ellie Krieger on Food Network

Prep time: 25 minutes
Cook time: 60 minutes
Makes 8 servings

3½ lb sweet potatoes, peeled, cut into 1-inch chunks
⅓ cup honey
1 large egg, slightly beaten
½ tsp each ground cinnamon and salt
¼ tsp ground nutmeg
2 large egg whites
¼ tsp cream of tartar
¼ cup superfine sugar

1. Heat oven to 350°F. Coat an 8x8-inch baking dish with cooking spray. Fill a large pot with 3 inches water insert a large steamer basket into pot and top with sweet potatoes. Bring to a boil cover pot and steam potatoes 14 to 16 minutes, until fork tender.

2. Transfer potatoes to a large bowl and cool slightly. Add honey, egg, cinnamon, salt, and nutmeg to bowl. Mash with a potato masher or beat with a handheld electric mixer until mixture is smooth. Spread into prepared dish and bake 30 minutes or until potatoes are hot.

3. Meanwhile, in a small bowl with an electric mixer, beat egg whites and cream of tartar until foamy. Add sugar 1 Tbsp at a time, beating for about 10 seconds between additions. Continue to beat 4 to 5 minutes until stiff peaks form and meringue is smooth and glossy.

4. Remove sweet potatoes from oven and place on a heat-proof surface. Using a spatula, swirl meringue over hot sweet potatoes to cover completely. Return baking dish to oven and bake 12 to 15 minutes longer or until meringue is set and lightly browned in spots.

"This dish is an antidote to typical Brussels sprout Thanksgiving dishes, which involve cooking the sprouts whole so you end up with soft, brownish outer leaves and an undercooked center. It takes a bit longer to prepare, but it's worth it, because no one at the table gets stuck with raw or overcooked Brussels sprouts on their plate." &mdashTom, producer of Top New Restaurant.

Prep time: 30 minutes
Cook time: 15 minutes
Makes 8 servings

2 lb Brussels sprouts
6 slices thick-cut bacon (6 oz), diced
1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves
1 tsp kosher salt
½ tsp freshly ground black pepper

1. Bring 4 quarts of lightly salted water to a boil in a large saucepan. Remove any torn or discolored outer leaves from the Brussels sprouts, then trim their bases and cut out and discard the cores.

2. Add sprouts to boiling water and blanch 4 to 5 minutes until they're crisp- tender and the leaves begin to open. Drain and refresh under cold water until they're cool enough to handle. Carefully separate Brussels sprouts into leaves and blot dry on paper towels. (This can be done a day ahead place leaves in a resealable bag in the refrigerator.)

3. In a large nonstick skillet, cook bacon over medium heat for 7 minutes or until just crisp. Remove bacon pieces with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Discard all but 1 Tbsp of the bacon drippings from skillet. Reduce heat to medium-low add sprout leaves, bacon pieces, thyme, salt, and pepper. Sauté 2 to 3 minutes, tossing gently, until just heated through.

"One year I said to my mom, "How come we always get pie, and not cake, at Thanksgiving?" To make me happy, she made a pumpkin bread pudding using challah. It was SOOOOO good, and a lot like cake! Now every year we have this instead of pie, and it rocks." &mdashAnne, host of Worst Cooks in America on Food Network

Prep time: 20 minutes
Cook time: 1 hour
Makes 12 servings

1 Tbsp unsalted butter, softened
1 (15-oz) loaf challah bread, cut into 1-inch cubes (8 cups)
½ cup walnut pieces, coarsely chopped
½ cup golden raisins or dried cranberries
3 cups canned pumpkin puree
2 cups heavy cream
4 large eggs
1 cup pure maple syrup
¼ cup packed brown sugar
1½ tsp ground cinnamon
1½ tsp vanilla extract
¼ tsp each ground nutmeg and allspice
Vanilla ice cream (optional)

1. Grease a 13x9-inch baking dish with butter. Add bread to dish, then scatter with walnuts and raisins. Gently toss to mix.

2. In a large bowl, whisk next 9 ingredients until blended. Pour evenly over bread mixture to cover, gently pressing down on bread cubes to submerge. Let stand 30 minutes.

3. Heat oven to 325°F. Bake dish 1 hour or until a knife comes out clean when inserted near the center (a few moist spots in the middle are okay). Let cool in pan on a wire rack until just warm. Serve with ice cream, if desired. (Dish can be made a day ahead reheat before serving.)

"Granny and I used to collect fallen pecans in the fall and bring them home to shell and bake with them. Growing up in Louisiana, I ate the bulk of my pecan pie at the kitchen table surrounded by relatives. I can't imagine Thanksgiving without it." &mdashDavid, chef and owner of Bayou Bakery, Coffee Bar & Eatery in Arlington, Virginia

Prep time: 30 minutes
Cook time: 50 minutes
Makes 8 servings

1⅓ cups all-purpose flour
1 Tbsp sugar
½ tsp salt
½ cup (1 stick) unsalted butter, cut into small cubes

1 large egg
5 large egg yolks
⅔ cup each cane syrup and light brown sugar
½ cup heavy cream
¼ tsp salt
½ cup (1 stick) unsalted butter, cut into small pieces
1 tsp vanilla extract
1¾ cups pecan pieces

1. Crust: Pulse flour, sugar, and salt in a food processor to combine. Add butter pulse until pieces are the size of corn kernels. Sprinkle 4 Tbsp ice water over mixture and pulse 6 times until dough starts to hold together (if it's still dry, add another 1 Tbsp ice water). Turn dough out on a work surface and form into a disc. Wrap in plastic wrap and chill 1 hour.

2. Heat oven to 325°F. Unwrap dough. On a lightly floured surface with a floured rolling pin, roll it out to a 12-inch-diameter, ⅛-inch-thick round. Fold into quarters and transfer to a 9-inch pie plate. Unfold and mold into plate. Trim edges to a ¾-inch overhang. Turn edges under, crimp with fingers, and refrigerate.

3. Filling: Whisk egg and egg yolks together in a bowl. Combine cane syrup, sugar, cream, and salt in a saucepan until blended. Add butter and cook over medium heat until melted, then cook until mixture is hot but not bubbling, 1 minute longer. Gradually whisk syrup mixture into eggs until blended. Stir in vanilla.

4. Sprinkle pecan pieces over bottom of crust and pour filling on top. Bake until filling is set around edges but center jiggles slightly, 45 to 50 minutes. Cool on a wire rack for 1 hour before slicing.

Tips for cooking (and saving) a smaller Thanksgiving feast

If you’re planning a smaller Thanksgiving gathering this year because of social distancing, you don’t have to give up the turkey, stuffing, pie and other traditional fare.

Thanksgiving feasts have typically been tailored for a crowd: big birds, large casseroles, and so on. Your favorite recipes might serve 10 or more. But from turkey breasts to muffin-tin pies, there are ways to adapt the classics for a smaller crew, with less expense and potential for waste.

“Strangely, in the past, this time of year seemed challenging because we were trying to feed so many," says Rebecca Miller Ffrench, a food writer and founder of the State Table, a culinary studio in Kingston, New York. This year, “we are trying to feed fewer, and it may prove equally difficult, emotionally if not physically."

Many families already branch out to include main dishes other than turkey for Thanksgiving, and this could be a good year to have fun with alternatives. But if tradition beckons, as it does for most, here are some tips.

Most birds sold for Thanksgiving dinners in U.S. supermarkets have traditionally been in the 16-pound range, with some much larger. That size turkey will serve 12 to 16 people. As a rule, when buying turkey, aim for about 1 pound per person when purchasing a whole bird when cooking a smaller bird, especially if you want leftovers, aim for about 1 ½ pounds per person.

So a 10-pound turkey might by OK for a group of 8, feeding your gang generously. But if your group is much smaller, think about buying just a turkey breast, say, and a couple of drumsticks.

First, you might serve fewer of them. Miller Ffrench says one of her favorite things about Thanksgiving has been “all the large variety of dishes, which just seems ridiculously decadent" now.

Instead of a table overflowing with food this year, she will spotlight each family member’s favorite dish. And that's all.

"Just one kind of cranberry, not two. Just squash, and not sweet potatoes as well. I hope we will take the time to relish each bite more, really focus on the individual flavors of each food, not the collective mounded plate,” she says.

“These past months have taught me to truly savor things more, figuratively and literally."

Many recipes can be halved: roasted butternut squash, mashed potatoes and Brussels sprouts are all good examples.

If you have a recipe for stuffing that calls for a 9-by-13-inch pan and feeds 10-12, you can cut it in half and bake it in a 9-inch-square pan. Reduce the cooking time by about 25 percent: When it’s browned and crispy on top and hot throughout, it’s done. Same thing for sweet potato casserole or green bean casserole.

Chef Maya-Camille Broussard, owner of Justice of the Pies bakery in Chicago, has some ideas for that most important category of Thanksgiving desserts: pies.

What if you'd like more than one kind of pie, but multiple 9-inch pies feel excessive?

Broussard suggests making galettes, mini pies in a muffin pan, or even whoopie pies in your favorite flavors. She also has small Le Creuset pots that she uses all the time to make individual pies.

“You may use a biscuit cutter to make small crust circles,” she says. Or turn a coffee mug or a glass upside down, dip the lip in flour, and use it to cut out a circle of dough.

If you decide to make one of those smaller pies or muffin-tin pies, remember to reduce the cooking time. You might need to just rely on your eyes and nose for how long to bake them. Look for a browned crust, a slightly bubbling interior (if it’s a fruit pie), or a mostly firm filling (if it's a pumpkin custard pie, for instance).

Broussard also believes in freezing pies.

“Pies usually have a high moisture retention and they freeze incredibly well," she says. “Pies are typically good in the fridge for one week and in the freezer for one to two months.”

Fruit pies freeze especially well, she suggests. Thaw one on the countertop and then “pop it back in the oven to warm it up and revive the crust.”

Finding creative ways to use Thanksgiving leftovers has always been an issue, this year even more so.

Leftover squash can become a pureed soup turkey a pot pie and a pozole soup. Mashed potatoes might top a shepherd’s pie later in the week. And everyone looks forward to a day-after-Thanksgiving turkey sandwich, maybe topped with extra cranberry sauce and a drizzle of gravy.

Miller Ffrench suggests freezing gravy flat in freezer bags and using it alongside a grilled chicken breast, or to enhance a pot pie base.

Another smart tip: “Slices of pumpkin pie are a delicious addition to any smoothie … crust and all.”

Above all, says Miller Ffrench, remember that it's not the size of the feast or the crowd that matters most: “Big or small, and most importantly, we’ll be counting our blessings."

15 Secrets from Top Chefs That Every Home Cook Should Know

There's an expression used to define what goes on behind-the-scenes in a restaurant kitchen: "choreographed chaos." An efficient kitchen staff operates quickly, quietly, and keeps up with the dance. To do this, chefs have many go-to tricks. Below is a list of some of their secrets that will benefit any home cook.

1. Master mise en place.
This might be the most important tip of all. "Mise en place" is French for "everything in place." What it means to a chef? Before you cook, have everything measured, peeled, chopped, pans greased, etc. and within reach. This will keep you from running around looking for the dried basil while your sauce is on the brink of burning.

2. A sharp knife is essential.
Sharpen it on a regular basis and hone in between sharpening. Dull knives are dangerous and make cutting much more difficult.

3. Taste as you go.
You should know what the dish tastes like before serving it. Sometimes a little more salt or a dash of spice brings perfection. Which brings us to the next tip&hellip

4. Salt as you go.
Don't be afraid of salt! Since you're cooking a fresh meal instead of eating a packaged one, you're starting out with much less sodium to begin with.

5. But lose the salt shaker.
Use a small bowl of kosher salt and add pinches as you cook and taste. It's easier to control the amount and ensures even coverage.

6. Tongs are an extension of your hand.
Walk into any restaurant kitchen and you'll see a set of tongs in almost every cook's hand &mdash usually gripped low down on the handle for maximum control. Use it to flip meat, pull a pan out of the oven, stabilize a steak while slicing, the list goes on and on.

7. Put a wet paper towel under a cutting board.
Not only are cutting boards that slide on the counter annoying, they're extremely dangerous when you're holding a knife and trying to chop something. Wet a paper towel and lay it under the board and it won't budge!

8. Sear chicken breast and finish in oven.
Chefs sear a piece of meat, poultry, or fish in a pan and then place it in the oven. Not only does this free up burners, it results in a much moister result.

9. Don't overcrowd your pan.
When roasting or browning anything, the tendency is to cram as much in the pan as possible &mdash resist! Do it in smaller batches instead. Crowding the pan leads to steaming and lowers the temperature of the pan so you won't get the caramelization you're looking for &mdash and that's where the flavor is.

10. Cook with a 1:1 ratio of butter and oil.
Oil stops the butter from burning and the butter adds richness to the dish.

11. Cut the ends off onions, tomatoes, cantaloupe, etc.
Pretty much do this for any other food that does not stay stable on the cutting board to make a flat surface. This allows you to have complete control of the item as you chop.

12. When baking, only mix until all ingredients are incorporated.
Over-mixing causes toughness by developing gluten in the flour. For light and fluffy cupcakes, only mix until the batter's come together.

13. Your broiler is basically an upside down grill.
Use it for more than storage!

14. Don't forget the power of your nose.
If something in the oven smells done but the timer's still ticking, check on it.

15. Clean as you go.
This simple tip makes a world of difference. Wipe down your cutting board in between items. Not only is it hard to chop something that is swimming in tomato juices, it's unsafe to chop on a wet surface.

TELL US: What's your top tip for cooking like a pro? Share in the comments below!

10 Ways to MacGyver Thanksgiving

These clever hacks will save you from Thanksgiving Day mishaps, like missing kitchen tools or a lack of fridge space.

Related To:

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Photo By: Matt Armendariz ©2014, Television Food Network, G.P. All Rights Reserved

Problem: Not Enough Fridge Space

Hack: Fill a cooler with ice packs and your lesser-used condiments. Voila! You have a whole free shelf.

Problem: No Roasting Rack

Hack: Elevate the turkey on a layer of quartered onions, carrots and celery. Bonus: They will add flavor to your drippings.

Problem: No Roasting Pan

Hack: Slide a baking sheet under a disposable foil pan to bolster the bottom and make the flimsy pan easier to manipulate.

Problem: No Turkey Baster

Hack: Psych! This is the solution. There's no real point to basting turkey (all it really does is lower the oven temperature).

Problem: No Cheesecloth

Hack: Typically you'd soak a cheesecloth in butter and lay it atop the turkey breasts to keep them moist. Instead, weave a lattice of bacon and lay it atop the breast as you roast the turkey.

Problem: No Fat Separator

Hack: Pour all your drippings into a heatproof cup or bowl and put it in the freezer for a few minutes. As it cools, the fat will solidify on top, and you can scoop it off with a spoon.

Problem: No Chafing Dishes

Hack: Keep dishes warm by stashing them in a slow cooker. Set the device on low to hold mashed potatoes, gravy or mulled cider until you're ready to serve them.

Problem: No Flour Sifter

Hack: Use a strainer (like most pastry chefs do), or just whisk to aerate the flour instead.

Problem: No Pie Weights

Hack: Dock (poke holes in) your pie crust well with a fork, lay a sheet of parchment down on top of it, and fill with pennies (or dried beans or uncooked rice, but you can't eat the beans or rice after).

Problem: No Pie Shield

Hack: Save crusts from burning by covering the delicate edges with a loose tent of foil the rest of the pie will bake through.

Thawing: Be sure to properly thaw your turkey! If you are preparing it from a frozen state, let stand at least 3 days in your refrigerator.
Preparation: Make sure to allow time for your turkey sit out for 1 hour, warming to room temperature, before roasting.
Brining: Do so 2 days before thanksgiving. A great way to brine your turkey is in a trash bag-lined cooler take zip-lox bags, fill them with ice, and let them float in brine to keep turkey cold. Be sure to keep a lid on cooler the cooler!
Slicing: Let your roasted turkey rest at least an hour before slicing. Slice off each turkey breast, lay it on a cutting board and slice on the bias.

Mashed potatoes: Don’t over whip your mashed potatoes. This will make them sticky and gelatinous. Whip just until cream/butter are incorporated and there are just a few lumps left.
Yams: Cook your yams the day before Thanksgiving so final preparation is easier.
Cranberry sauce: Always have a few cans of cranberry sauce in your pantry. It’s an easy shortcut when you are running out of time.
Gravy: To make things easy on yourself, simply strain your gravy to get the lumps out.

Happy cooking and have a Happy Thanksgiving from all of us at Chaumette!

Chefs share last-minute Thanksgiving tips and recipes for sides, turkey and dessert

T-minus one day till Thanksgiving, so just in case you still don't know what to cook or just need a little moral support in the kitchen, three chefs have all the advice and recipes to make tomorrow a breeze.

Food Network personality Jeff Mauro, Top Chef Canada host and cookbook author Eden Grinshpan, and celebrity chef Jamika Pessoa joined "Good Morning America" on Wednesday to talk sides, turkey and dessert.

Top Tips for Turkey

The food television personality and "Eating Out Loud" author shared her suggestions to cook a great turkey along with a recipe that breaks down the bird for even cooking.

Use a roasting rack

Grinshpan said it's "super important to get air circulation underneath your turkey. If you don't have a roasting rack, aluminum foil will be your best friend, wrap it up, coil it up and put it at the bottom of your roasting rack and Turkey on top."

Don't forget the wishbone

"Take the wishbone out before you roast it. Ask your butcher to do this -- If you can't do it, take a paring knife by the breast and scrape it out, a paper towel will help you grip it and it will just make for a beautiful carved breast turkey," she explained.

Don't put stuffing inside the bird

"I don't stuff my turkey," Grinshpan said, "because when you stuff a turkey, it adds time to the roast. You don't want to keep your turkey in there longer than you need to. That will dry out the breast."

She suggests cooking and serving the dressing on the side and instead fill the turkey cavity with aromatics, fresh herbs such as sage, apple, garlic, onion and lemon.

Spatchcock Turkey Recipe


1 -10-12 lb turkey- spine removed

3 tablespoons unsalted butter- room temp

1 tablespoon fresh sage- finely chopped

1 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

3 large carrots- peeled and cut into thirds

2 celery stalks- sliced into thirds

1 head of garlic- sliced right now the center

1 yellow onion- sliced into quarters

Giblets, neck and spine from the turkey

Kosher salt and black pepper to taste

Pat dry the turkey and then lay the turkey breast side up with the legs turned in. Using the palm of your hand press down on the turkey breast hard to crack the breast bone, You want to do this so that the bird lays as flat as possible.

Place on top of a flat roasting rack that fits on a roasting tray. Scatter the carrots, celery, onion, fennel, garlic, sage, giblets, neck and spine on the bottom of the roasting tray. Place the rack with the spachcock bird on top.

In a small bowl mix together 2 tablespoons room temp butter, freshly chopped sage and grated garlic.

Gently release the turkey skin from the breast by sliding your finger under the skin and place herbed butter under the skin on both sides and press it out evenly over the breast. Season generously all over the bird with salt and cracked black pepper. Make sure to get underneath the bird as well.

Drizzle over the extra virgin olive oil and place in the pre-heated 450 degree oven for an hour to an hour and a half. Check the turkey at one hour and place the thermometer in the thickest part of the leg when it reads 165 degrees the bird is ready.

Remove from the oven and loosely tent with tinfoil to let rest for at least 20 minutes.

While it rests, make the gravy with the veg and roasted neck, giblets and spine. Strain all the ingredients from the bottom of the roasting rack through a strainer, keeping the liquid and the neck, spine and giblets and throwing away the vegetables.

Place liquid in a pot with the neck, giblet and the spine with 2 cups of chicken stock and let simmer, skimming off the fat for around 10 minutes.

Strain again keeping only the flavorful stock.

In a pot melt the butter and add in the flour. Mix together with a whisk and let get a little brown in color while you cook off the flour.

Add in the warm stock slowly whisking as you go. Bring to a simmer and whisk consistently. Check for seasoning and serve warm with sliced turkey.

Grinshpan also shared her chimichurri recipe from "Eating Out Loud" to add a bright, herbaceous and acidic component to the rich dinner.


1/2 cup roughly chopped fresh dill

1/2 cup roughly chopped fresh parsley

1 small shallot, finely chopped

1 small garlic clove, grated

1 1/2 teaspoons red wine vinegar

1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

In a food processor, combine the dill, parsley, shallot, garlic, vinegar, kosher salt and black pepper. Pulse until the mixture is finely chopped.

Continuing to pulse, stream in the olive oil just until the mixture forms a loose sauce.

Top Tips for Sides

Mauro offered up three recipes that would be a perfect accompaniment to turkey day along with tips for easy flavor boosters right from the pantry.

Use evaporated milk in mac and cheese

"Get a couple cans and mix it with a combination -- of grated cheeses, something creamy, something sharp, something funky and let it simmer and let it melt," he said.

Giardiniera adds a high note of acid and crunch

"You can do the Chicago way and use hot giardiniera -- this is just a beautiful cornucopia of veggies -- put it on your greenbeans," he suggested.

Add pecans and dried cranberries to stuffing

"I add some nice crushed pecans -- right from the pantry -- and bring a little sweetness and fun tang, tartness from dried cranberries, mix your stock in there and put it in the oven and adding more color," he said.

Out of The Box Cornbread Muffins


1-16-ounce box cornbread mix

Preheat oven to 375 degrees.

In a large mixing bowl add the cornbread mix, milk, sour cream, honey, and eggs, stir until combined. In a greased muffin tin, fill cups ¾ full. Bake for 15 to 18 minutes or until golden brown. Use a toothpick for extra insurance that your little corn breads are cooked through.

Remove and let cool, OR once your fingers can handle the heat, slather on some butter, and enjoy!

Deep Fried Crispy Stuffing Balls with BBQ and Cranberry Sauce

1/4 teaspoon fresh ground pepper

1 cup seasoned panko bread crumbs

1 cup parmesan cheese, grated

Combine flour, salt, and pepper in a shallow bowl. Beat eggs together in a second shallow bowl until smooth. Add panko bread crumbs, and in a third shallow bowl.

In a medium bowl add the stuffing and parmesan cheese, mix. Scoop stuffing, about 2 tablespoons per serving, and roll into a ball using your hands, forming about 12 balls. Dredge each ball through the flour mixture, shaking off any excess. Transfer each ball to the egg mixture and evenly coat. Roll each ball in the bread crumbs mixture until evenly coated. Set each stuffing ball on a plate and allow to sit for the coating to stick to the stuffing.

Heat oil in a deep-fryer or large saucepan to 350 degrees.

Carefully lower 4 to 5 stuffing balls into the hot oil and fry until golden brown on all sides, about 2 to 4 minutes, transfer to a paper towel-lined plate using a slotted spoon. Repeat with the remaining stuffing balls.

For the dipping sauce simply stir together the BBQ and cranberry sauce, dip your stuffing balls and enjoy.

Pantry-Pull Cranberry Sage Stuffing

3 to 4 leftover ciabatta rolls, cut into 1/2 inch pieces

1/4 cup carrots, small dice

2 tablespoons unsalted butter

1/4 teaspoon freshly ground pepper

1/4 cup pecans, roughly chopped

Preheat oven to 425 degrees.

Combine ciabatta and cranberries in a large mixing bowl, set aside.

Place a medium non-stick 3-quart saucepan over medium-high heat, add butter. Once butter melts, add celery, carrots, and onions, stir occasionally until tender, about 3 to 4 minutes. Stir in chicken broth, sage, salt, and pepper. Bring to a simmer, about 3 to 4 minutes, remove from heat and pour over ciabatta-cranberry mixture and stir to combine.

Transfer stuffing mixture to a greased casserole dish and top with pecans. Cover with foil and bake for 15 minutes. Uncover and bake another 10 to 15 minutes or until golden brown. Carefully remove from oven and enjoy!

Top Tips for Desserts

Jamika Pessoa served up her three different dessert recipes and tips that make the sweet course even easier.

Use tongs to crimp pie edges

If you want to add an easy pattern to the crimped folded edges of a pie crust, Pessoa suggests clamping down with tongs to add an easy waved edge.

Add bourbon to jazz up canned pie filing

Pessoa said that it will add another dimension of flavor to a pumpkin pie and guests will "have no idea that that filling came out of a can."

Blueberry Apple Air Fryer Hand Pies


1 box (2-9 inch) refrigerated pie crusts at room temperature

1 jar blueberry preserves or favorite flavor of jam

1 apple, peeled, small diced or thinly sliced

Turbinado sugar, for topping

Unroll pie dough on a lightly floured surface. Using a 4-inch round cutter, cut out 4-5 rounds in each dough. Place a heaping teaspoon of preserve in the center of round. Add a teaspoon of diced (or thin slice) apple on top.

Using a brush or the tip of your finger, dot around the edges of dough rounds with water. Fold over round in half and seal with the tip of a fork.

In a small bowl, whisk egg and water. Brush egg wash over pies and lightly sprinkle tops with turbinado sugar. Make 3 small slits on top of pies with a sharp knife.

Spray air fryer basket or fryer wire racks with cooking spray if necessary.

Place pies in air fryer and bake at 350 degrees or 10-12 minutes until pies are golden brown and bubbling.

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